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It is also an interesting example of the state of artistic attainment in the city of Mathura at the turn of our era. Little is known precisely from that period on terms of artistic creation. The Buddha is represented wearing the monastic robe, the sanghhatithe uttarasangaand the overcoat sanghati.
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It also displays at its center a Buddhist triratana symbol, further confirming the involvement of Indo-Scythian rulers with Buddhism. Especially the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara seems to have had little to no influence. From his capital of Mathura or alternatively from the capital of his territories of the northwest, PeshawarKanishka issued the first known representation of the Buddha on a coin, and actually the first known representation of the Buddha that can be dated precisely, in this case, to the reign of Kanishka — CE.
From numismatic, literary and epigraphic evidence, it seems that the Indo-Greeks had control over Mathura at some time, especially during the rule of Menander I BC. It progressively incorporated a profusion of original Hindu stylistic and symbolic elements however, in contrast with the general balance and simplicity of Buddhist art.
Female images with bare breasts, nude below the waist, displaying labia and female genitalia are common. The palm of his right hand bears the Chakra mark, and his brow bear the urna. In some cases however, a clear influence from the art of Gandhara can also be felt, as in the case of the Hellenistic statue of Herakles strangling the Nemean liondiscovered in Mathura, and now in the Kolkota Indian Museumas well as Bacchanalian scenes.
Although several are dated to the 2nd century CE, they often tend to display characteristics of Gupta artespecially with the very thin dress seemingly sticking to the body of the Buddha.
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These statues of the Buddha however tend to display characteristic and attitudes more readily seen in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara: Rajuvula is also known for the famous Mathura lion capital which records events of the Indo-Scythian dynasty as well as their support of Buddhism.
Mathura art refers to a particular school of Buddhist artwhich centered on the city of Mathurain central northern Indiaduring the period in which Buddhism flourished in India. Mauryan art flourished during that period. The style of these statues is somewhat reminiscent of the earlier monumental Yaksha statues, usually dated to a few centuries earlier.
One dated example of statuary from that period is the Bala Bodhisattvawhich, although not from Mathura but from Sarnath clearly describes the state of artistic attainment under the rule of Kushan ruler Kanishka. Also, facial types also tend to become more Indianized. All these coins were minted in gold under Kanishka I, and are in two different denominations: The art of Mathura features frequent sexual sangnati.
Xanghati should be noted however that Maitreya is a Bodhisattva and not a Buddha according to the Buddhist cannon. From the Stone Age to the 12 the century” by Upinder Singh p. The Saptarishi Tila statue from Mathura ca. The Mathura sculptures incorporate many Hellenistic elements, such as the general idealistic realism, and key design sanghwti such as the curly hair, and folded garment.
In particular there is a debate about the origin of the Buddha image and the role played by each school of art. The capital portrays two lions reminiscent of the lions of the Pillars of Ashokabut in a much cruder style.
Views Read Edit View history. Hindu art started to develop from the 1st to the 2nd century CE and found its first inspiration in the Buddhist art of Mathura. A Bodhisattva from Mathura: The Bimaran casket is usually dated to 50 CE, but with less certainty than the Kanishka coin. Mathura was an important city of central northern India for the Maurya Empirewhose capital was in eastern India at Pataliputra.
Only six Kushan coins of the Buddha are known in gold the sixth one is the centerpiece of an ancient piece of jewellery, consisting of a Kanishka Buddha coin decorated with a ring of heart-shaped ruby stones.